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Principles of Inorganic Chemistry

Second Revised & Enlarged Edition

G.S. Sodhi (author)

ISBN: 9788130929712

Publication Date: Jun 2015

Format: Paperback

Provides an account of fundamental principles and their applications to the study of elements. The comparative chemistry of inorganic compounds is discussed with special reference to periodicity, structure, bonding and reactivity. Recent advances in important segments of chemical bonding, allotropes, coordination compounds, organometallic derivatives and kinetics are also examined.
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The Principles of Inorganic Chemistry, Second Edition predicates on an account of fundamental principles and their applications to the study of elements. The comparative chemistry of inorganic compounds is discussed with special reference to periodicity, structure, bonding and reactivity. Recent advances in important segments of chemical bonding, allotropes, coordination compounds, organometallic derivatives and kinetics have been taken into consideration. The text covers almost every component of inorganic chemistry that is included in the curriculum prescribed for professional degrees. It disseminates information in a clear, systematic and easy-to-learn format.
Pages 872
Dimensions 241 x 165
Date Published 30 Jun 2015
Publisher MV Learning
Subject/s Inorganic chemistry  
Preface to the Second Edition • Preface to the First Edition • Abbreviations

Chapter 1 Atomic Structure: Introduction • The Electron • The Proton • The Neutron • The Nucleus • Rutherford Model of Atom • Electromagnetic Radiation • Wave Nature of Light • Particle Nature of Light • Proofs of particle nature of light • Photoelectric effect • Compton effect • Electromagnetic Spectrum • Atomic Spectrum • Failure of Rutherford Model • Bohr Model of Atom • Bohr’s picture of hydrogen atom • Bohr’s explanation for hydrogen spectrum • Failure of Bohr model • Particle Nature of Electron • Wave Nature of Electron • de Broglie Principle • Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle • Schrödinger Wave Equation • Quantum Numbers • Principal quantum number • Azimuthal quantum number • Magnetic quantum number • Spin quantum number • Transformation of Coordinates • Significance of Wave Function • Significance of Probability Concept • Pauli Exclusion Principle • Hund’s Rule of Maximum Multiplicity • Aufbau Principle • Term Symbols

Chapter 2 Periodic Table: Introduction • The Classification • s-Block elements • Representative elements • Transition elements • Inner transition elements • Size of Elements • Atomic radii • Ionic radii • Ionization Energy Electron • Affinity • Electronegativity • Variation of electronegativity • Electronegativity scales • Pauling scale • Mulliken scale • Allred–Rochow scale • Jaffé scale • Slater Rules • Relativistic Effect • Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers • Greater than 100

Chapter 3 Chemical Bonding: Introduction • Ionic Bond • Lattice energy • Born–Haber cycle • The Kapustinskii equation • Degree of ionic character • Fajans’ rules • Stoichiometric defects in ionic crystals • Schottky defects • Frenkel defects • Consequences of stoichiometric defects • Non-stoichiometric defects in ionic crystals • Metal excess due to anion vacancies • Metal excess due to interstitial cations • Metal deficiency due to cation vacancies • Metal deficiency due to interstitial anions • Consequences of non-stoichiometric defects • Radius ratio concept • Coordination number 3 (plane triangle) • Coordination number 4 (tetrahedral) • Coordination number 6 (octahedral) • Coordination number 8 (cubic) • Limitations of radius ratio concept • Covalent Bond • Valence bond theory • Hybridization • Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory • Molecular orbital theory • Polar covalent bonds • Dipole moment • Resonance • Bond length • Bond angle • Metallic Bond • Theories of Bonding in Metals • Sea of electrons theory • Band theory • Alloys • Hydrogen Bond • Factors affecting hydrogen bonding • Properties affected by hydrogen bonding • Types of hydrogen bonding • Anomalous character of water • van der Waals Forces • Dipole–dipole attractions • Ion-dipole attractions • Ion-induced dipole attractions • London forces

Chapter 4 Nuclear Chemistry: Introduction • The Atomic Nucleus • Binding energy of the nucleus • Packing fraction of the nucleus • Meson theory of nuclear forces • Characteristics of nuclear forces • Shell model of the nucleus • Liquid drop model of the nucleus • Natural Radioactivity • Disintegration theory • Rate of disintegration • Radioactive equilibrium • Radioactive disintegration series • Induced nuclear reactions • Artificial Radioactivity • Projectile-capture reactions • Projectile-capture particle-emission reactions • Spallation reactions • Nuclear fission • Nuclear fusion • Identification of Isotopes • Separation of Isotopes • Gaseous diffusion method • Centrifugal method • Applications of Radioactivity • Carbon dating • Age of earth and minerals • Power generation • Chemical investigations • Agricultural applications • Clinical applications • Biological applications • Industrial applications • Analytical applications

Chapter 5 Acids and Bases: Introduction • Bronsted–Lowry Theory • Binary acids • Oxyacids • Hydrated cation acids • Bases • Leveling and differentiating effects • Lewis Theory • Acids • Bases • Hard and Soft Acid Base Theory

Chapter 6 Non-Aqueous Solvents: Introduction • Acid–Base Reactions • Precipitation Reactions • Complexation Reactions • Redox Reactions • Solvolysis Reactions

Chapter 7 Metallurgy: Introduction • Concentration of Ore • Hydraulic washing • Magnetic separation • Froth flotation • Leaching • Conversion of Ore into Oxide • Calcination • Roasting • Reduction of Treated Ore to Crude Metal • Smelting • Reduction with hydrogen • Air reduction process • Alumino–thermite Process • Bessemerization • Reduction by electrolysis • Purification of Metal • Liquation • Distillation • Selective oxidation • Selective dissolution • Hydrometallurgy • Vapor phase refining • Mond process • van Arkel process • Zone refining • Electrolytic refining • Thermodynamics of Metallurgical Processes

Chapter 8 Redox Reactions: Introduction • Half Reactions • Standard Electrode Potential • Electromotive Force • Latimer Diagrams • Composing the half reactions for conversion of one species into another • Stability of oxidation states • Ebsworth-Frost Diagrams • Construction of Ebsworth-Frost diagrams • Applications of Ebsworth-Frost diagrams

Chapter 9 Bioinorganic Chemistry: Introduction • Geochemical Effects on the Distribution of Elements • Zonal structure of the earth • Differentiation of elements • Chemical Elements Essential to Life Processes • Bulk elements • Macro elements • Trace elements • Ultratrace elements • Structure of the Cell • The cell membrane • The cytoplasm • The nucleus • Bioenergetics • Enzymes • Classification of Metallobiomolecules • Zinc-Based Enzymes • Carbonic anhydrase • Carboxypeptidase • Sodium-Potassium Pump • The Biochemistry of Iron • Ferritin • Transferrin • Hemoglobin • Myoglobin • The Biochemistry of Calcium • Role of calcium in development of bone and teeth • Role of calcium in transmission of nerve impulse • Role of calcium in muscle contraction • Role of calcium in clotting of blood • Cobalamine • Photosynthesis • The light reaction • The dark reaction • Toxicity of metal ions • Mercury • Lead • Arsenic • Cadmium • Metal-Based Pharmaceuticals • Cisplatin • Auranofin • Lithium carbonate • Gadoteric acid

Chapter 10 Hydrogen and Hydrides: Introduction • Position in the Periodic Table • Preparation of Hydrogen • Properties of Hydrogen • Isotopes of Hydrogen • ortho- and para-hydrogen • Atomic Hydrogen • Hydrogen Economy • Hydrides • Ionic or salt hydrides • Covalent or molecular hydrides • Metallic or interstitial hydrides • Intermediate hydrides

Chapter 11 Group 1 Elements: Introduction • Physical Properties • Flame coloration • Electrical conductivity • Electrode potential • Mutual miscibility • Chemical Properties • Reaction with water • Reaction with air • Reaction with nitrogen • Compounds • Sodium hydroxide • Sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate • Sodium oxide and sodium peroxide • Sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate • Sodium thiosulfate • Complexes • Anomalous Properties of Lithium • Diagonal Relationship Between Lithium and Magnesium

Chapter 12 Group 2 Elements: Introduction • Physical Properties • Ionization energy • Heat of hydration • Flame coloration • Chemical Properties • Reaction with water • Reaction with air • Reaction with acids and alkalis • Compounds • Beryllium(II) chloride • Beryllium(II) hydride • Basic beryllium acetate • Basic beryllium nitrate • Calcium sulfate • Calcium carbonate • Complexes

Chapter 13 Group 13 Elements: Introduction • Physical Properties • Melting points and boiling points • Inert pair effect • Chemical Properties • Reaction with air • Reaction with halogens • Reaction with acids • Reaction with alkalis • Compounds • Orthoboric acid • Diborane • Borax • Borides • Carboranes • Complexes

Chapter 14 Group 14 Elements: Introduction • Physical Properties • Catenation • Allotropic forms of carbon • Allotropic forms of tin • Chemical Properties • Reaction with air • Reaction with halogens • Reaction with acids • Reaction with alkalis • Compounds • Carbides • Ionic carbides • Covalent carbides • Interstitial carbides • Graphite intercalation compounds • Fullerenes • Cyanogen • Silicates • Orthosilicates • Pyrosilicates • Cyclic silicates • Chain silicates • Sheet silicates • Three-dimensional silicates • Silicones • Uses of Silicones

Chapter 15 Group 15 Elements: Introduction • Physical Properties • Bond strength • Allotropic forms of phosphorus • White phosphorus • Red phosphorus • Black phosphorus • Chemical Properties • Reaction with air • Reaction with halogens • Reaction with sulfur • Reaction with metals • Compounds • Oxides of nitrogen • Oxyacids of nitrogen • Hyponitrous acid • Nitrous acid • Nitric acid • Hydrazine • Hydroxylamine • Nitrogen fluorides • Hydrogen azide • Nitrides • Phosphine • Oxyacids of phosphorus • Phosphorus acid series • Phosphoric acid series • Phosphazenes

Chapter 16 Group 16 Elements: Introduction • Physical Properties • Catenation • Allotropic forms of sulfur • Chemical Properties • Reaction with air • Reaction with hydrogen • Reaction with halogens • Reaction with metals • Reaction with nitric acid • Compounds • Oxides • Ozone • Water • Hydrogen peroxide • Oxygen fluorides • Sulfur nitrides • Oxyacids of sulfur • Sulfur oxyhalides • Polysulfates

Chapter 17 Group 17 Elements: Introduction • Physical Properties • Color • Bond energy • Chemical Properties • Reaction with water • Reaction with sodium hydroxide • Reaction with hydrogen sulfide • Reaction with ammonia • Reaction with carbon monoxide • Compounds • Interhalogen compounds • Polyhalides • Pseudohalogens and pseudohalides • Halogen cations • Oxyacids of chlorine • Chlorine dioxide • Hypofluorous acid

Chapter 18 Group 18 Elements: Introduction • Physical Properties • Liquid helium • Clathrates • Helium–neon laser • Chemical Properties • Reaction with platinum(VI) fluoride • Reaction with fluorine • Compounds • Xenon fluorides • Xenon oxides • Xenon oxofluorides

Chapter 19 The Transition Elements: Introduction • Physical Characteristics • Electronic Configuration • Variable Oxidation States • Color • Catalytic Properties • Magnetic Properties • Magnetic moment • Magnetic susceptibility • Experimental determination of magnetic moment • Other forms of magnetism • Complexation • Small size of the metal ion • High charge on the metal ion • Presence of vacant d orbitals on the metal ion • Types of Ligands • Comparison of 3d Transition Series with 4d/5d Series • Size • Oxidation states • Magnetic properties • Metal–metal bonding • Coordination number of complexes • Abundance • Relativistic effect and anomalous characteristics • of heavier transition elements

Chapter 20 Werner Coordination Theory:Introduction • Postulate 1 • Postulate 2 • Postulate 3 • Postulate 4

Chapter 21 Nomenclature of Complexes: Introduction • IUPAC Rules • Representative Examples • Complexes with neutral coordination sphere • Complexes with cationic coordination sphere • Complexes with anionic coordination sphere • Complexes with cationic and anionic coordination spheres • Complexes with bridging ligands • Dinuclear complexes

Chapter 22 Isomerism in Complexes: Introduction • Structural Isomers • Ionization isomers • Hydrate isomers • Linkage isomers • Coordination isomers • Coordination position isomers • Ligand isomers • Polymerization isomers • Stereoisomers • Geometrical isomers • Coordination number 4: square planar complexes • Coordination number 6: octahedral complexes • Optical isomers • Coordination number 4: tetrahedral complexes • Coordination number 6: octahedral complexes • Bailar Method of Isomeric Enumeration

Chapter 23 Stability of Complexes: Introduction • Criteria to Gauge Lability • Criteria to Gauge Stability • Chelate effect • Nature of metal ions and the ligands • Formation constants of complexes • Dissociation constants of complexes • Effective atomic number rule • Sixteen electron rule

Chapter 24 Theories of Metal–Ligand Bonding: Introduction • Valence Bond Theory • Coordination number 6 • Coordination number 4 • Merits of valence bond theory • Demerits of valence bond theory • Crystal Field Theory • Octahedral complexes • Crystal field stabilization energy • Tetrahedral complexes • Square planar complexes • Applications of crystal field theory • Magnetic properties • Hydrated radius • Enthalpies of hydration • Color • Structure of spinels • Reaction mechanisms • Drawbacks of crystal field theory • Classification of ligands • Nephelauxetic effect • Anti-ferromagnetic coupling • Electron spin resonance spectrum • Visible spectrum • Intensities of d–d transitions • Jahn–Teller Theorem • Molecular Orbital Theory • Octahedral complexes with no p-bonding • Octahedral complexes with p-bonding • Comparison of Crystal Field and Molecular Orbital Theories

Chapter 25 Chemistry of 3d Series Transition Elements: Introduction • Scandium • Titanium • Oxidation state IV • Oxidation state III • Oxidation state II • Vanadium • Oxidation state V • Oxidation state IV • Oxidation state III • Oxidation state II • Chromium • Oxidation state VI • Oxidation state V • Oxidation state IV • Oxidation state III • Oxidation state II • Manganese • Oxidation state VII • Oxidation state VI • Oxidation state V • Oxidation state IV • Oxidation state III • Oxidation state II • Iron • Oxidation state VI • Oxidation state IV • Oxidation state III • Oxidation state II • Cobalt • Oxidation state IV • Oxidation state III • Oxidation state II • Nickel • Oxidation state IV • Oxidation state III • Oxidation state II • Copper • Oxidation state III • Oxidation state II • Oxidation state I

Chapter 26 Kinetic Aspects of Complexes: Introduction • Mechanisms of Substitution Reactions • Substitution nucleophilic unimolecular reactions • ubstitution nucleophilic bimolecular reactions • Factors Complicating Substitution Reactions • Factors Affecting Rates of Substitution Reactions • The trans Effect • Applications of trans effect • Synthesis of geometrical isomers • Distinction between geometrical isomers • Theories of trans effect • Polarization theory • p-Bonding theory • Redox Reactions • Outer sphere mechanism • Inner sphere mechanism • Complementary reactions • Non-complementary reactions

Chapter 27 Organometallic Compounds: Introduction • Classification of Organometallic Compounds • Ionic organometallics • s-Bonded organometallics • Multicentered-bonded organometallics • p-Bonded organometallics • Hapticity of Organometallic Compounds • Carbonyl Organometallics • Carbonyl complexes • Structures • Bonding • Infrared spectroscopy of carbonyl complexes • Synthesis • Reactions • Carbonylate anion complexes • Synthesis • Reactions • Olefin Organometallics • Structure • Bonding • Synthesis • Reactions • Alkyl Organometallics • Methyllithium(I) • Structure • Bonding • Synthesis • Reactions • Dimethylberyllium(II) • Structure • Bonding • Synthesis • Reactions • Trimethylaluminium(III) • Structure • Bonding • Synthesis • Reactions • Cyclopentadienyl Organometallics • Ferrocene • Structure • Bonding • Synthesis • Reactions • Nitrosyl Organometallics • Structures • Bonding • Synthesis • Reactions

Chapter 28 The Lanthanoids: Introduction • General Characteristics • Electronic Configuration • Oxidation States • Lanthanoid Contraction • Consequences of lanthanoid contraction • Complexes • Color • Magnetic Properties • Spectral Properties • Separation of Lanthanoids • Precipitation • Fractional crystallization • Thermal decomposition • Solvent extraction • Ion exchange

Chapter 29 The Actinoids:Introduction • General Properties • Electronic Configuration • Oxidation States • Compounds • Thorium(IV) nitrate • Uranium(III) hydride • Uranium oxides • Actinoid Contraction • Magnetic Properties • Electronic Spectra • Complexes
Appendix • Units and their symbols •Symbols and values of physical constants • Suggested Reading • Index
Dr. G. S. Sodhi earned his doctorate from Delhi University, India. At present, he is an Associate Professor in the Department of Chemistry and Forensic Science Unit of S.G.T.B. Khalsa College, Delhi University. He has published about 150 research papers in inorganic and forensic chemistry and has filed 9 Indian patents on fingerprinting. He was a Visiting Fellow of National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs in 1996–97. He has received several awards in his research field, including the NationalTechnology Day Award (2000), World Intellectual Property Organisation’s International Award (2001), Lockheed Martin India Innovation Growth Program Award (2008) and the India Innovation Initiative Award (2009). He is the Principal Investigator of the Research Project, “Detection of Latent Fingerprints by Nanoparticle-size Compositions”, sponsored by the Department of Science and Technology. He is also the Regional Vice-President of the Fingerprint Society, U.K.

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